Stellenbosch Confidential Thesis

Stellenbosch Confidential Thesis-12
Yet, there is concern in the South African fruit industry that too much fruit and money is lost each year due to breaks along the fresh fruit export cold chain. • Abstract • Introduction • Theoretical perspective • The South African fruit export cold chain • Factors affecting the quality of fruit • Rate of respiration • Growth rate of postharvest micro-organisms • Relative humidity • Cooling of the fruit in pre-coolers and cold stores • Cooling of the fruit in containers • The role of the Perishable Products Exports Control Board in the export cold chain • The NAVIS and Refcon systems • Research method and design • Data collection • Results and discussion • Conclusion • Acknowledgements • Competing interests • Authors’ contributions • References Background: South Africa exports a large variety of different fruit types and cultivars worldwide.Effective cold chain management begins on the farm and ends in the refrigerator at home (Jobling n.d.).

Yet, there is concern in the South African fruit industry that too much fruit and money is lost each year due to breaks along the fresh fruit export cold chain. • Abstract • Introduction • Theoretical perspective • The South African fruit export cold chain • Factors affecting the quality of fruit • Rate of respiration • Growth rate of postharvest micro-organisms • Relative humidity • Cooling of the fruit in pre-coolers and cold stores • Cooling of the fruit in containers • The role of the Perishable Products Exports Control Board in the export cold chain • The NAVIS and Refcon systems • Research method and design • Data collection • Results and discussion • Conclusion • Acknowledgements • Competing interests • Authors’ contributions • References Background: South Africa exports a large variety of different fruit types and cultivars worldwide.Effective cold chain management begins on the farm and ends in the refrigerator at home (Jobling n.d.).

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The remainder of the capacity was handled by conventional reefer ships, with the capacity of a typical conventional vessel approximately 4500 pallets and larger vessels carrying up to 6000 pallets at a time. The increase in the use of containers for the export of fruit has resulted in the need to rethink and redesign the packaging of fruit, as incorrect airflow through the fruit has been shown to affect the quality and shelf life of the fruit (M. However, reefer containers are designed to maintain the temperature within a predetermined range, not to cool it down.

The percentage of refrigerated containerised transport increased to 90% in 2010 (M. This implies that the cargo (in this case summer fruit) must be brought to the required temperature before being loaded into a reefer container (Perishable Products Exports Control Board [PPECB] 2013).

The article also determines whether the implementation of the NAVIS and Refcon systems in the Port of Cape Town made any difference to the number of breaks experienced in the fruit export cold chain.

This article identifies the number and length of temperature breaks along the fruit export cold chain and provides industry with areas to focus on to improve operational procedures along the fruit export supply chain to ensure optimal quality.

According to research conducted by Hill & Waller (quoted in Ogunleye & Adefemi 2007) postharvest losses are approximately 10% – 20% worldwide.

This is similar to the findings of Aiello, La Scalia and Micale (2012), who estimate that approximately 12% of fresh produce in developed countries is lost and the findings of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2011), who state that postharvest losses range between 10% and 15%.

The Refcon reefer monitoring system is a computer program which allows complete visibility of the status of reefer containers in the stack yard of a port.

There is a perception in the fruit industry that the majority of the breaks in the fruit export cold chain originate in the Port of Cape Town (Postharvest Innovation Programme 2013).

Even if postharvest losses are as low as 10%, the result is still a R1.98 billion loss in terms of 2013 fruit exports.

The most important factor in postharvest management is temperature management (Jobling 2002).

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