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In the popular children's game rock-paper-scissors, the hand signal for "paper" always beats the sign for "rock," while "rock" trumps "scissors," and "scissors" defeats "paper." The ability to learn such circular relationships might prove key to solving complex problems or forming complex networks of social relationships, the researchers said.[8 Human-Like Behaviors of Primates]"In the wild, with many, many animals, you can see dominance ordered by rank — 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and so on.
The apes sat in a booth housing a computer touch screen and were presented with two different options for hand signals used in rock-paper-scissors.
If they picked the stronger option, they were given a piece of apple and heard a chime; if they picked the weaker option, an error buzzer sounded, and they received nothing.
Chimpanzees can learn how to play the game rock-paper-scissors about as well as a 4-year-old human child, a new study finds.
This finding suggests that the last common ancestor of humans and chimps may have possessed the capability for the complex form of thinking used in the game, scientists said.
The rock properties including porosity, permeability and elastic properties are calculated by some effective methods such as voxel-based method (VBM), parallel lattice Boltzmann method (PLBM) and rotated staggered grid finite difference method (RSG-FDM). John's Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 16-21 August 2015.
The results show that: 1) the simulated porosity and permeability agree well with the lab measurements; 2) the simulated P- and S-wave velocities and their lab measurements have a relatively big difference with maximum value of 62.43%; 3) the unresolved phase can reduce P- and S-wave velocities in the rocks; 4) the rock properties are well evaluated by rock images, lab measurements and numerical simulations. Chimpanzee performance was close to that of 4-year-old children, Matsuzawa said."We've proved that chimpanzees have the intellectual capability to learn circular relationships, and of course humans have this capability.So the logical conclusion is that the last common ancestor that humans and chimpanzees had about 6 million years ago may also have had this kind of capability," Matsuzawa said.The other two chimps performed nearly as well, though shy of 90 percent, Matsuzawa noted."Not all chimpanzees can perform perfectly, just like not all human children behave perfectly," Matsuzawa told Live Science.This suggests the chimps had difficulty understanding the circular nature of the game, the researchers said.Once the chimpanzees learned how all the pairs worked, the scientists displayed a random mix of all three pairs for the apes.For instance, in recent years, significant progress of digital rock physics (DRP) following the X-ray computed tomography (XCT) scan techniques has been made. Paper presented at the SPE Middle East Unconventional Gas Conference and Exhibition held in Muscat, Oman, 31 January–2 February. This technique can be used to predict rock properties such as porosity, permeability, elastic moduli, and electrical conductivity. After an average of 307 sessions playing the game, with three 12- to 15-minute sessions a day, five of the seven chimps showed they had mastered the game, picking the winning choice at least 90 percent of the time.The smartest of the chimps mastered the game after only 53 days, according to the study.