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Recent surveys suggest technology integration is limited.Hicks, Doolittle, and Lee (2004) reported on a national survey of high school social studies teachers conducted in 2002 that “just over 50% of teachers indicated they rarely (less than once a month) or never use digital historical resources” (p. In a similar but broader reaching finding, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reported in the 2001 US history that “58% of high school history students in public and private school rarely or never use computers” (National Council on Education Statistics, 2002, p. Expectations for Citizenship Skills and Knowledge in a Digital Age In a recent effort to describe how technologies might be integrated into social studies teaching and learning, Mason, et al.
Bolick, Berson, Coutts, and Heinecke (2003) reported, “Regular use of technology is infrequent among most social studies faculty members (p.
304).” As a result, most teachers graduate from teacher preparation institutions with limited knowledge of the ways technology can be used in the classroom.
The data provided preliminary answers to two questions: (a) To what extent did preservice teachers integrate technology into their instructional planning?
Theoretical Framework Technology Preparation of Teachers The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Accreditation standards (1997) and the American Council on Education (1999) called for improving technology experiences of preservice teachers and encouraged university faculty to integrate technology into their teaching and scholarship.
Similarly, Whitworth and Berson (2003) found that Internet use and accessing information on the Web was the most common use of technology in the social studies.
They expressed a concern that technology was being used as a more sophisticated and expensive way to meet the same learning outcomes that could also be achieved through more traditional methods.They further suggested that citizens should understand public and community issues, be able to obtain information, think critically, and be willing to enter into dialogue with others and understand diverse perspectives.also suggested that citizens act politically by organizing to address social issues, solve problems in groups, speak in public, petition, protest, and vote. (2000) guidelines, the group argued, One of the most far reaching and influential projects to distinguish how teachers and students should utilize technology in support of the aims of education can be found in the ISTE National Technology Standards.Findings indicated 85% of preservice teachers integrated technology skills and knowledge in instructional practice with their K-12 students.Approximately 50% of the work samples and reflections documented K-12 students’ use of technology in the areas of creativity and innovation, communication and collaboration, and research and information fluency.In a recent poll of registered voters conducted by Public Opinion Strategies and Peter D.Hart Research Associates, 71% of those polled ranked computer and technology skills as important (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007a).However, only 25% believed that schools are doing a good job of teaching those skills.For over a decade, leaders and researchers in technology use have been criticizing teacher education programs for inadequately preparing preservice teachers to integrate technology into instruction with their students.According to Moursund and Bielefeldt (1999), the principal investigators of a study conducted by the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE), “71% of teacher education programs in the study required students to take at least three credit hours related to generic instruction technology skills” (p. However, these courses did not provide a meaningful context for how technologies apply to and can improve teaching and learning.Nor did these courses prepare teachers to use technologies in various instructional settings.