New residents also enrich the cultural fabric of Burnaby by introducing new foods, music, traditions, beliefs and interests.
des Canadiennes d’origine caribéenne Lillian Allen, Ahdri Zhina Mandiela et Afua Cooper.
But if demands go a little deeper than that (e.g., teaching ‘other’ religions or languages), they produce violent reaction, indicating a deep resentment toward funding ‘others’ arts and cultures.16 , Linda Hutcheon and Marion Richmond likewise point out a number of shortcomings of multiculturalism, among others that race is the “single most significant factor in the response to multiculturalism,” and that this policy/ideology has not really addressed Canada’s colonial relations to the Aboriginal population.
The texts in their book bear witness to stereotyping and ghettoizing tendencies inherent in this policy/ideology.
Various authors contest the myth of Canada being a welcoming tolerant nation in many narratives about Canada’s intolerance.
According to them, multiculturalism has not managed to fundamentally upset Canada’s social hierarchies based on class and ethnicity; rather the ‘vertical mosaic’17 stands in stark contrast to the publicized ‘multicultural mosaic.’ There has been a shift from the lowest-paying work having been done by Slavs, Italians, Portuguese, and Greeks to being done by non-European immigrants, a shift that Bannerji describes as creating differentiated second or third class citizenships.18 But the authors also explain that productive results of multiculturalism are the creation of a national discourse about ‘ethnicity’ and ‘race’ that gradually changes Canadians’ self-definition, the increasing academic interest in Canada’s diversity, and the massive expansion of the Canadian literary discourse that includes works from authors of various descents.19 A number of these authors understand this policy/ideology as having “the more positive possibility—if not yet completely realized—of being an innovative model for civic tolerance and the acceptance of diversity,” and they recognize its potential to make room for non-English and non-French authors in the Canadian literary discourse.These writers, in concert with English and French Canadian authors, create the multiracial and multiethnic nature of Canada as an immediate reality for Canadians and write this reality into their minds.20 In the same vein, Judy Young, in defence of Canadian multiculturalism programs, outlines a variety of such programs and their achievements and lists a number of writers, directors, and artists who were promoted through multiculturalism grants.As a result, she affirms that “Canadian literature displays a vibrancy and diversity that derives from a real mixing of sources, influences, and origins.”21 The vibrant and diverse Canadian national literature has become a significant part of world literature and its potential to globally advertise Canada in concert with multiculturalism was recognized and exploited by the Trudeau and Mulroney governments as Sabine Milz notes.It briefly outlines the concept of multiculturalism, its fallacies and inadequacies, followed by an introduction to dub poetry.The main part is dedicated to the discussion of dub poetry by Lillian Allen, Ahdri Zhina Mandiela, and Afua Cooper who present female Caribbean Canadian views of multiculturalism.The policy constitutes linguistic rights and institutional obligations with respect to the norms and practices of the dominant two charter groups (English and French), without granting various cultural practices as collective public rights.3 Two different objectives of multiculturalism developed: promoting cultural retention and social equality.While the first objective seems to have been accommodated with the various official multiculturalism programs, the latter fell short of being realized due to the lack of political demand and pressure on key cultural, educational, and political institutions to fundamentally change their politics.4 Political, economic, and social equality was not achieved.A travers leurs œuvres, elles affrontent les hégémonies culturelle, politique et littéraire occidentales, créant ainsi un discours de réaction aux discours littéraire et historique bien établis en Occident.assimilationisme, culture dominante, diaspora, discours, minorité visible, multiculturalisme, néo-colonialisme, pluralisme culturel, poésie dub, rastafarianisme, subalterne, suprématie eurocentrique, transculturalisme assimilationism, cultural pluralism, diaspora, discourse, dominant culture, dub poetry, Eurocentric supremacy, multiculturalism, neo-colonialism, otherness, pungent mosaic, rastafarian movement, subaltern, transculturalism, vertical mosaic, visible minorities This article explores how Canadian multiculturalism is reflected in the poetry of Canadian dub artists.The policy of Canadian multiculturalism developed in several steps that included announcing the multiculturalism policy in 1971, passing the Multiculturalism Act in 1988, and forming the Multiculturalism Directorate in 1972 and the Race Relation Unit in 1982.In 1990 the Department of Multiculturalism and Citizenship was set up and several multiculturalism programs were created, including “cultural Development” and “multiculturalism grants.”1 With this policy the Canadian government seemingly adopted a change of course in its dealing with Quebec’s striving for independence, with the growing demand for cultural and political autonomy of the Aboriginal population, and with the political and cultural needs of the increasing numbers of immigrants from non-European countries in the 1970s and 1980s.