Intended Audience What type of audience is the author addressing?
Is the publication aimed at a specialized or a general audience?
If so, locate these sources for more information on your topic.
A key step in writing the literature review is working out what literature should be included.
Primary sources are preferred over sources that another person had cited (secondary sources).
If you do come across a useful secondary source, try to find the primary source it is referring to, so that you can read it first-hand.Inquiring about the Author What are the author's credentials, such as, institutional affiliation [where he or she works], educational background, past writings, or experience?Is the book or article written on a topic in the author's area of expertise? Have you seen the author's name cited in other sources or bibliographies?Does the information appear to be valid and well-researched, or is it questionable and unsupported by evidence? Are the ideas and arguments advanced more or less in line with other works you have read on the same topic? University of North Carolina; Evaluation During Reading. Purdue University; Walraven, Amber, Saskia Brand-Gruwel, and Henny P. In general, the principles that guide your evaluation of print materials are the same that apply to evaluating online resources. University of Georgia; Evaluating Internet Sources: A Library Resource Guide. The act of determining bias in scholarly research is also an act of constant self-reflection. Therefore, it is important that you minimize the influence of your own biases by approaching the assessment of another person's research introspectively and with a degree of self-awareness."Availability Bias, Source Bias, and Publication Bias in Meta-Analysis." In Methods of Meta-Analysis: Correcting Error and Bias in Research Findings. Coverage Does the work update or clarify prior knowledge, substantiate other materials you have read, or add new information? Colorado State University; Evaluating Print Sources. However, unlike print materials that have certain features that help determine their scholarly integrity, the interactive and multimedia dynamics of online sources requires additional attention to the content in order to obtain confidence that what you are viewing is valid and credible. Inquiring about the Date of Publication When was the source published?Is the source current or out-of-date for your topic?Use the following resources to help you test and evaluate the literature you find.A critical review requires you to evaluate an academic text e.g. You are asked to make judgements, positive or negative, about the text using various criteria.Inquiring about the Title of Journal Is this a scholarly or a popular journal?This distinction is important because it indicates different levels of complexity in conveying ideas and the intended readership.