An elevated physiological dead space, calculated from measurements of arterial CO2 and mixed expired CO2, has proven to be a useful clinical marker of prognosis both for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and for patients with severe heart failure.
Although a frequently cited explanation for an elevated dead space measurement has been the development of alveolar regions receiving no perfusion, evidence for this mechanism is lacking in both of these disease settings.
Forty-two consecutively hospitalized patients with refractory CHF were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to furosemide doses (125 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg) so that all patients received intravenous furosemide diluted in 150 ml of normal saline (0...
For this critical review, electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pub Med) were searched for relevant basic research studies and randomized clinical trials recently published or presented at major meetings.
However, questions remain regarding the effectiveness and safety of the therapy in clinical practice.
Resting heart rate (HR) is a predictor of adverse outcome in patients with heart failure (HF).
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Heart failure is a pathological condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to the rest of the body, because it is either unable to fill with a sufficient volume of blood or unable to generate sufficient force to pump out enough blood; it is not a condition in which the heart has stopped pumping.
A systemic approach for management is recommended based on the current guidelines, starting from thiazides and proceeding to loop diuretics...
Recent therapeutic trials regarding the management of acute heart failure (AHF) failed to demonstrate the efficacy of newer therapeutic modalities and agents.